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The recession of the early 1980s saw Birmingham's economy collapse, with unprecedented levels of unemployment and outbreaks of social unrest in inner-city districts.
and regeneration of old industrial areas such as Brindleyplace, The Mailbox and the International Convention Centre.
Old streets, buildings and canals have been restored, the pedestrian subways have been removed and the Inner Ring Road has been rationalised. The city will serve as host of the 2022 Commonwealth Games.
, the council has a Labour Party majority and was led by John Clancy, replacing the previous Conservative/Liberal Democrat coalition at the May 2012 elections, until Clancy's resignation on 11 September 2017.
The main centres of population, power and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trent, the Severn and the Avon.
The area of modern Birmingham lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the densely wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden.
The damage done to the city's infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive demolition and redevelopment in subsequent decades.